by Johnson, C.P. & Myers, S.M.
Autism Spectrum Disorders are not rare; many primary care pediatricians care for several children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics plays an important role in early recognition of autism spectrum disorders, because they are usually the first point of contact for parents. Parents are now much more aware of the early signs of autism spectrum disorders because of the frequent coverage in the media; if their child demonstrates any published signs, they will most likely raise their concerns to their child’s pediatrician. It is important that pediatricians be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders and have a strategy for assessing them systematically. Pediatricians also must be aware of local resources that can assist in making a definitive diagnosis of, and in managing, autism spectrum disorders. The pediatrician must be familiar with developmental, educational, and community resources as well as medical subspecialty clinics. This clinical report is 1 of 2 documents that replace the original American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement and technical; report published in 2001. This report addresses background information, including definition, history, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, early signs, neuropathologic aspects, and etiologic possibilities in autism spectrum disorders. In addition, this report provides an algorithm to help the pediatrician develop a strategy for early identification of children with autism spectrum disorders.