Modes of Communication
When we think of communicating, we often think about talking to each other but even when we talk with others, we use other means of communicating. We know that students with ASD have difficulties with communication. Some students with ASD are able to talk very fluently but still have difficulties with other nonverbal behaviors. Others may not speak, but can still communicate effectively.
It is important that all students can communicate effectively. Because of this, it is likely that students will need to use a multi-modal approach to communication. This means that students will likely need to use more than one mode of communication to be an effective communicator. People without ASD are primarily verbal speakers but we still use nonverbal behaviors such as facial expressions and gestures. Students with ASD may do this too or may need to use a picture exchange system along with some sign language. Or, a student may use an assistive technology device but still uses some picture exchange.
Modes of Communication
There are multiple modalities in which a student might communicate and as we plan for communication in students with ASD, we need to remember that it is unlikely one system will meet all the needs of a student. For example, if a student has an assistive technology device, what happens when the batteries die? Or, if they use picture exchange, what happens if they don't have a picture for what they want to say? If sign language is their primary mode of communication, what happens if they want to communicate with someone who doesn't know sign? These are all questions that need to be considered and warrant a discussion about in addition to their primary mode of communication, what kind of backup system will the student use?
No one mode of communication will work for every student with ASD so it is important for educators to be familiar with the various modes and to individualize the mode so that it fits the student's individual needs. As a teacher, it is important to not only know what to teach the student in terms of communication but to teach them how to communicate through an appropriate mode of communication. Below you will see a chart with different options for modes of communication:
|Mode of Communication||Description||Examples|
|Speech (Verbal)||Spoken language using words, phrases, and/or sentences to communicate.||Saying hello, asking a question verbally, commenting|
|Sign Language||A language system that uses hands, fingers, and facial expressions to communicate.||American Sign Language, sign approximations|
|Picture Exchange||A language system that uses pictures which are exchanged with the communicative partner to communicate.||Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)|
|Speech Generating Device||A device that uses technology such as a computer generated voice to communicate.||Go Talk, iPad, Dynavox Maestro, Tango, iTalk2, Accent|
|Behavior||Engaging in actions that communicate.||Crying, hitting another student, screaming, biting, gesturing, pointing, taking an item|
|Eye Gaze||Using eyes and the direction of eye gaze to communicate.||Looking at something that you want; looking at someone you want to avoid|
|Gestures / Pointing||Using hands and fingers to point or indicate communication.||Pointing at something you want; waving your hands back and forth to indicate you don't want something|
|Facial Expressions||Changing the mouth, eyes, and other features of the face to communicate.||Smiling; frowning; having a disgusted look on your face|
As the educational team considers the appropriate mode of communication for a student with ASD, it is important to include parents and family members as well as the student whenever possible. Additionally, you will want to ensure that the communication system is effective and efficient for the student to use. It is not unusual for students with ASD to use multiple modalities to communicate. Thus, it is important for the team to be familiar with assistive technology or Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).